Wednesday, January 28, 2015

It's not a Sunni- Shi’a Conflict, dummy!

Last week, my young cousin in the second grade ran inside after an explosion shook the windows. “I don’t mind when the house shakes, I just don’t want to die in it,” he said out of breath. “You won’t.” I reassured him. He then went back to play. I followed him outside to find a group of children playing a political game: President Hadi v. Abdulmalik Al-Houthi. Their mission was to free the cats held hostage. As I sat there watching this game unfold, I heard them throw many terms around: democracy, justice, national dialogue conference etc. The words Sunni or Shi’a, were never mentioned.

This is not surprising given the fact that affiliation to a madhab (religious school of thought) rarely comes up in conversations in Yemen. This is slowly changing, and many fear that this historic diversity and tolerance might become something of the past.

To say there are no sectarian tendencies or cleavages in Yemen is incorrect (as Dr. Shelagh Weir explained from the 1980s), but the oversimplification of explaining the current power struggle entirely on historic theological differences between Sunnis and Shi’as is incorrect as well.

This is incorrect for a variety of reasons that I will summarize here.

First, while no statistics have been collected on the composition of Ansarullah, commonly known as Houthis; it is believed that many of their members are Zaydi but also come from various religious schools of thought in Shi’a and Sunni Islam, including Ismaili, Shafiʿi, and Ja’afari. Many Sunni tribesmen and soldiers have also joined the Houthis and fight along their side. In fact, prominent Shafi’i leaders like Saad Bin Aqeel, a Mufti of Ta’iz, are amongst Houthis’ leaders and in fact presented a Friday sermon at one of the sit-ins prior to their advance into the capital.

Second, Zaydis share similar doctrines and jurisprudential opinions with Sunni scholars. As Helen Lackner, author of Why Yemen Matters? stated “this has little, if anything, to do with theological differences or a Sunni/Shi’a split, but is based on issues of social cohesion, including tribal allegiance, power, control and (the absence of) development and social security funding for an increasingly impoverished and suffering population.”

Third, socially speaking Yemenis have lived and continue to live together without segregation. Muslims in Yemen, from the various schools of thought, whether Sunni or Shi’a, pray side-by-side, people intermarry without any special procedures or “conversions,” and communal violence based on confessional membership has been rare.

Fourth, according to Houthis’ their actions do not aim “exclusively or even primarily at establishing a Zaydi political order” as Stacey Phillbrick Yadav, Associate Professor and author of “Islamists and the State: Legitimacy and Institutions in Yemen and Lebanon” states. She adds, “Similarly, the fact that Islah’s membership is predominantly Sunni doesn’t mean it is working to reestablish the caliphate.”

Fifth, not all Zaydis are Houthis. Well-known Zaydi scholars and religious centers have been divided on their stance towards the Houthis.

Sixth, missing from the analysis is the link between rural deprivation and wider political contestations, and conflicts. The longer the transitional government ignored people’s grievances, the more the ranks of the discontented swelled. Last straw was when the government lifted the fuel subsidies overnight without warning in 29 July 2014, increasing the price of fuel and diesel by 60 and 90 percent. Mass protests erupted, and Houthis capitalized on these grievances, and by so doing, gained a significant number of new membership from various bacgrounds (not only Zaydis) which helped them expand.

Seventh, while sectarian cleavages are becoming exploited by various groups, such as when al-Qaeda uses the rise of Houthis to recruit more people to defend “the Sunnis," it is important to remember that those fighting al-Qaeda are not all Shi’a nor are they all Houthis.

Eigth, if this was a sectarian issue, Saleh (who is technically Zaydi) would not have engaged in six wars with the Houthis from 2004 - 2010. It appears that today’s former enemies have formed a temporary alliance.  This indicates that these conflicts are political in nature.

Ninth, there is no sectarian dimension to the victims of the violations by the Houthis such as the detention of activists and journalists in recent protests.

Finally, while the geopolitical tensions between the various political camps of course impacts what is happening on the ground, it is incorrect to explain the political dynamics in the country as simply foreign interference. In addition, narrowly framing the ongoing issue as sectarian absolves the transitional government from their duties as it helps them blame everything on foreign actors, rather than making them accountable for the localized grievances found throughout the majority of Yemen. It also absolves Houthis from the violations they have committed blaming their actions on theological differences instead of political aspirations.

As these ten points demonstrate, the issue cannot be reduced to a theological war. Analysis must include these nuances in order to better understand the ongoing political dynamics. Without a proper understanding, policies will continue to be flawed and no solutions will be formulated, which would perpetuate the cycle of violence.


Nasser Alkhateeb said...

That was very eye opening. I had no idea for example that Houthis were Zaydis among them. I thought they were mostly 12'ers. I was also surprised to learn that Sunnis are in their ranks.

Thank you for sharing this. Most helpful in understanding the situation. May Allah ease the suffering of the people of Yemen

Tanya said...

Thanks for this article, fantastic!

Marc Springer said...

Great article. It goes a long way showing how the conflict is not, at its base, sectarian. Many are pushing in that direction because it serves their agenda. If you read mainstream Arabic press you would think the Houthis are mostly 12ers, a trojan horse for Iran.

Atiaf Alwazir said...

Happy that this article helped shed some light, and hope that we continue to have these kind of discussions, learn from each other, and try to do our best for people of Yemen, and for all humanity. we're all one after all :-)

abu izzah hafeezkv said...

Good Article,
Last 4 yeras i was living in sana'a and what explain here is same as my analysis about the Yemen Revolution, still I beleive all these present gimmik going on by support of Ex- Dictator, without his support no one can't do anything.
I am just copying your article to my blog with your permission :)

Alastair Northedge said...

Thank you for your commentary, which I appreciated very much.

However, I would have said much the same about Iraq and Syria, particularly Iraq, which I know well. Before the war(s), I would have said that there's no chance of those countries dissolving into sectarian hatred, but they did. Iraqi Shi'a married Sunni without question. There was no discussion of sectarian belonging.

I hope it doesn't happen in Yemen.

Atiaf Alwazir said...

Thanks Abu izzah, and yes sure you have my permission.

Alastair, i believe that most "sectarian" conflicts around the world are really about power in essance, yet religious discourse is used to recruit people in their camps. of coruse this is this fear in Yemen that it would develop, and as i said, things are already changing a bit unfortunately. Yet, it is not the case just yet, so we should not already say it is. that would just be factually in correct. Also, the differences between the Zaydi school of thought and the Shafi'i or Hanafi schools are not that great which could minimize the potential for this to escalate into a "sectarian" war. Yet the more the media says it is, the more it might become. We just need to say it enough times for it to become a reality.

maysaa said...

It's a good article. I agree with the whole idea, but I need to clarify two thing: 1- Mufti Ta'aiz that you mentioned, visited Iran many times, and his ideas were semi twelve. He led a prayer to Huthis, actually it doesn't mean a lot as most of the mass are northern- Zaydi.
Secondly, I believe that the political conflicts always need a banner to monopolize such as nation or sect. So, you can see the case from this perspective, Huthis and their enemies used the religion/ sect to convince the youth to fight. This always creates a social tense and at some point, people may forget all their past tolerant life and categorized each other and the hatred feeling spread.

Atiaf Alwazir said...

Thanks Mayssa, i agree with you that groups will often use religion to justify and persuade their followers. Regarding the mufti, just because he visited Iran doesn't mean he officially became a twelver. if you have evidence of this please do share that information. The visit and the Iran alliance is a perfect example of the political alliance - Russia, China, Iran & the Houthis.

Mohd Xyz said...

pls stop killing each other,build your country is just nonsence if we kill each other,just ask every body how u can fight against those who capture palistine.u people knows quran better than us, look wat says quran.put down u arms for your children and children,s children.give better yaman to your coming jeneration,vialance agresson,bullet,bum is not soluation.just luv u country otherwise foreign power will rule you.

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